Skip to Main Content

Music 114: Musicianship: Tonality

Purdue OWL

For more detailed information about the Chicago Manual of Style, including sample citations for articles, websites, and other kinds of resources, visit the guide at Purdue OWL.

Chicago Citation Slideshow

Alt text - chicago style walkthru slideshow

Title Slide: Chicago Manual of Style: A Walkthrough

(updated February 2021)

[Image: St Olaf Libraries & IT Logo]

Slide 1: Do I use Notes-Bibliography or Author-Date??


Notes-Bibliography: typically humanities (languages, literature, etc.) and the arts (music, dance, theater, visual arts)

Author-Date: typically STEM-related (natural sciences, social sciences, math, etc.)

Slide 2: What’s the difference?


Notes-Bibliography: uses footnotes or endnotes in addition to a bibliography at the end of the work

Author-Date: uses in-text citations in addition to a bibliography at the end of the work

Slide 3: Footnotes VS Endnotes (Notes-Bibliography)

Footnotes and Endnotes are formatted the same, but:

Footnotes: appear at the foot of the page

Endnotes: appears at the end of a work/chapter of a work

Ask your professor if footnotes or endnotes are preferred for your assignment! 

Slide 4: Foot/Endnotes VS Bibliography (Notes-Bibliography)


Foot/Endnotes: Generally the author (first name - last name), title, publication info - separated by commas and parentheses

Bibliography: Author (last name written first), title, publication info - most sections separated by periods

Slide 5: Foot/Endnotes VS Bibliography (Notes-Bibliography): Examples



  1. Don DeLillo, Zero K (New York: Scribner, 2016), 102-103. 


DeLillo, Don.  Zero K. New York: Scribner, 2016.

(Note: Book title is italicized)

Slide 6: In-Text Citations (Author-Date)


Usually appears in parentheses. Only includes author and year of publication (hence the system name, “Author-Date”), with no punctuation

Page number(s) can be added following a comma after author/date

Slide 7: In-Text Citations VS Bibliography (Author-Date)


In-Text Citations: Only the author last name and date of publication, as well as page number(s) as necessary

Bibliography: Author (last name written first), publication year, title, the rest of the publication info - most sections separated by periods 

(NOTE: bibliographies in Notes-Bibliography and Author-Date styles are slightly different! Be careful!)

Slide 8: In-Text Citations VS Bibliography (Author-Date): Examples


In-Text Citation:

(DeLillo 2016)

In-Text Citation with page numbers:

(DeLillo 2016, 102-103)


DeLillo, Don. 2016.  Zero K. New York: Scribner.

Note: the title of the work is italicized.

Slide 9: Pro-Tip: Don’t use citation generators!!


These are enticing, but are often inconsistent and stock full of errors!

Always consult an official guide when putting together your citations!

Slide 10: Pro-Tip: For foot/endnotes, use automated numbering!


Take advantage of Microsoft Word’s foot/endnote numbering system, and/or software like Zotero!

That way, if you end up adding or deleting foot/endnotes, the program will automatically renumber your notes!

Slide 11: Pro-Tip: Questions? Ask a Librarian!


Your Research and Instruction Librarians are here to help! Schedule a consultation!